As with the first test, each question was worth up to 4 points, for a possible total of 36. The highest score in the class before extra credit was 32 again; the median was a C+, which is OK but lower than the first (and the distribution of grades shows this); again, nobody who took the test failed. The grade scale works out like this:
If you answered 9 questions, but failed to answer one from each chapter, I took a 4 point penalty off your grade. (If you didn’t answer all 9 questions, I did not)
If you want to discuss your performance, and how you can improve it next time, feel free to come by my office hours. If you want to dispute your grade, feel free to do so in writing.
Here are a few examples of full-credit 4-point answers:
Bhakti: A series of cults (religious orders) created in response to the influx of Islam in India around the time of the rise of the Delhi Sultanate. The Bhakti were of Hindu origin, but welcomed people of all sexes and castes. Each Bhakti was typically devoted to a single god of the Hindu pantheon, with Shiva and Vishnu being the two most common. The Bhakti were instrumental in slowing the spread of Islam in India.
Quran: 600 c.e. The collection of revelations told to the Prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. It is the holy text of Islam and is meant to be read in its original Arabic. While being a religious text, it is also a historica piece of literature that records the interactions of early Muslims with other groups.
Jihad: Muslims believe in a strong sense of community. Many of their rituals such as prayer and fasting are done in a sense of community. The concept of Jihad is to protect that community at all costs. Jihad is originally explained as noble and good, but over the years the definition morphed into something like religious warfare. Now Jihad is used to justify an anti-Western attitude in many Middle Eastern countries.
Gospels are usually retellings of the life of Jesus Christ. In the first few centuries C.E. there became a vast amount of them, until only four were chosen. The rest were declared heretical. They are important because they give insight into how Christians viewed their faith and surrounding events.
Augustus Caesar He was a Roman emperor. The senate voted to give him the Augustus, which is a title usually applied to gods. His original name was Octavian. He ended mystery religions. He also passed a law to help strengthen family stability. Any woman who has 3 or more kids will gain new rights. He also gave soldiers abundant rewards for long services and loyalty. After his death, his rules and regulations maintained for two more centuries.
Swahili means Coast. It is a language that combines Bantu and Arabic. A culture as well. Spreads from the 1st century to the 15th century c.e. although most arabic words aren’t integrated until the 16hy century. These people lived on the East coast of Africa. They have a heavy influence from Middle Eastern countries and even trade with China later on. They are known for their trading. They merged their own cultures with those of the Islamic people who came and set up shop. Islam was a major religion for merchants and nobles, but not so much for the everyday people that lived outside the city. Portuguese people came and pretty much took over the trade and destroyed their way of life.