(names and terms are in Pinyin, with Wade-Giles romanizations in parentheses)
Counter-attack against Buddhism: Han Yu and Ouyang Xiu
Zhou Dunyi (Chou Tun-yi, 1017-1073)
Great Ultimate emanating reality by Yin/Yang vibration
People can become a sage by learning, as Mencius taught.
Shao Yong (1011-1077)
Numerology and I Ching.
Historiography: “Correct Mandate, Accepted Mandate, Modified Mandate, and Substituted Mandate”
sincerity as core ethic
Zhang Zai (uncle of Cheng brothers; 1021-1077)
qi (ch’i) – substance or essence; energy
“Western Inscription”: “All people are my brothers and sisters, and all things are my companions.”
School of Principle (li), aka the Cheng-Zhu school
Cheng Yi (1033-1107) younger brother to Cheng Hao
Qi (ch’i) and li (principle/abstract).
Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi; 1130-1200)
Commentaries on the Four Books (becomes standard education/examination text) (Four books are Analects, Mencius, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean)
School of Mind (xin), aka Cheng-Lu school
Cheng Hao (1032-1085) older brother to Cheng Yi
Emphasis on “humanity” jen
unity of original mind (xin; hsin) with great ultimate
Lu Xiangshan (1139-1192)
Mind is Principle
Wang Yang-ming (1472-1529) Ming dynasty, really
Unity of knowledge and action: intuition as route to truth and morality
Wang Anshi (1021-1086), noted poet and classics scholar, chief councilor, promulgates 15-point reform program between 1069 and 1073, including:
Bureaucratic recruitment exams which stressed rote learning, eliminated in favor of exam based on writing skill and application of classics and practical history to current problems. Local schools specializing in vocational/technical skills expanded.
Military reform: well-trained motivated militia/nationalguard model, paid for by taxes on wealthy landowners.
Government involvement in moneylending to peasants to forestall foreclosure and debt
Consistent taxes on merchant guilds, as well as state-run commodities stockpiles to ease price fluctuations.
Tang (618-960) — An Lu-shan Rebellion (755-783), Huang Chao Rebellion (875- )
“Five [Northern] Dynasties and Ten [Southern] Kingdoms” (907-960)
Song (960-1279) — Wang An-shih reforms (1069-1073), Southern Song (1115-1279)
© 2003, 2004 — Jonathan Dresner