Each question was worth up to 4 points, for a possible total of 40. The highest score in the class before extra credit, in both sections, was 31. For simplicity’s sake, I’m using 30 as the 100% score, so the grade scale works out like this:
If you answered 10 questions, but failed to answer two from each chapter, I took a 2 point penalty off your grade. (If you didn’t answer all 10 questions, I did not)
If you want to discuss your performance, and how you can improve it next time, feel free to come by my office hours. If you want to dispute your grade, feel free to do so in writing.
Here are a few samples of answers that earned the full 4 points (or 3.5, anyway):
Manufacturing is also known as proto-industrialism. this is a process during the early modern period in many different states, but largely in Western Europe. There was an increase in agricultural production as well as the development of urban economies. There was an increase in sharing of technology, mainly due to the Columbian Exchange. The main change dealt with specialization: Before manufacturing, one individual would produce an entire item; however now one person specializes in a specific part of a product. This increases efficiency and productivity. This is a significant process not only for each state, but generally. This increases imports and exports and was more productive even with travel time.
Encomienda These were the indigenous people who were granted to a spaniard for labor. It started in the Carribean with the Taino people. The spaniard was able to use them as labor as well as to tax them. The problem was the indigenous population began to decline rapidly and this lead to the start of importing slaves. The encomienda were important and useful and very abused and the spaniards didn’t realize the declining population until it was too late.
The Columbian Exchange refers to the vast amount of travel and goods passed between Europe and the newly found and formed colonies. This all of course was after Christopher Columbus’ voyages. The new contact gave Native Americans European diseases such as smallpox and influenza, just some of the diseases to which Indians had no immunities. Grazing livestock was introduced to the Americas, and europeans took home a number of new crops such as potatoes, corn and tomatoes. Also the silver and gold taken back to Europe surely boosted its economy.
Catholic Reformation was basically a response to the Protestant Reformaiton. The Catholic Reformation was helped come into being with the help of Erasmus and Martin Luther. The reformation was run through the Council of Trent starting in the mid-1500s. Inquisitions sought to expose bad clergymen. Also the reformation focused on the central power of the papacy. It brought about an increase in religious education. Another focus was to fix the indulgences.
Haciendas were famrs in south America that were owned by rich Aristocrats. the labor for these haciendas was comprised of native people under encomienda and mita systems. These farms produced mostly items for export to Europe, while some fed Europeans in their territory. These haciendas often developed villages around them that would eventually become cities and capitals.
Early Modern is the term used to explain the period after the medieval period and before the modern period. During this period shows the transformation of a country in increased literacy rates among populace, reformation in science fields and economic growth. many countries during this time start a central government which starts the process of nationalism. Though many countries go through an early modern in different amounts of time, even though it isn’t a requirement to go through early modern to get to modern, most nations have gone through some kind of Early modern.