There wasn’t as overwhelming a favorite this time: Opium had the strongest showing, picked by almost 3/4ths of you. It was followed closely by urbanization, monocultures and industrialization. If you’re keeping score, you’ll note that all of those were terms from Chapter 20 which, in spite of offering fewer choices, was the clear favorite. The most popular terms from Chapter 19, just around the 50% level, were Queen Nzinga and Peter the Great. The least popular terms were David Ricardo, Manchus and mestizos, Treaty of Westphalia and James Cook.
The high score this time was 27, the lowest of the semester, so far. The good news is that the ratio of A-level grades was clearly up as a result; the ratio of D-level grades was also up, though. The median was on the B/B- borderline.
Here are some good answers, as a reminder of what I’m looking for:
- Law of Nations – This is defined as the law of all individual nations. This was on top of the individual state laws. Thomas Aquinas distinguished betwen the laws of states and nations but never said what it was, where it could be found, or how to define/find it. Later a man named Hugo Grotius said that it was all states had to recognize and adhere to each state’s/nations sovereignty. This was during the 17th century.
- Botanical Gardens – This was a place where all types (species and climates) of plants were grown. It allowed for monocultures and studies of plants for medicine and food production. The botanical garden in Madrid stood as an ornament. They also allowed for diversity in food types because people could study the different food plants and then take their knowledge back with them. This was about the 18th century.
- inoculation – a way of immunization that became relevant in this time period. An example would be giving a human a dose of cowpox so that they would be immune to smallpox. By injecting the virus into the body, a defense for similar viruses is established. This causes the pandemic of many diseases to decrease significantly.
- The Treaty of Westphalia was signed in 1648 by almost all of the warring European states. In it, it established that each state could have control over its own religion, bringing the Holy Wars to an end. The Treaty paved the way for state sovereignty, and therefore the modernization of Europe and its politics.
- Peter the Great was the Russian Czar who brought Russia up to date with the rest of Europe by transferring technology and fashion from Western Europe to Russia. Ruled from the alte 1600s to early 1700s. Through bringing Russia up to date with the rest of Europe, Russia was not seen as a backwards country, but as on par politically with the rest of Europe, thus securing a spot in European politics from then on. Also marriages between other European monarcies helped bring Russia into the modern Europe.
- Industrialization is when the process for manufacturing goods turns from human and animal power to another power source. The first of these power sources were water, wind and steam. Industrialization allows for products to be made much more quickly and in large quantities, allowing the economic systems to become surplus-based. This also opens doors for labor specialization and urbanization.
- Maroons – These were slaves who escaped from either their traders or masters. Predominantly African Slaves. They escaped and would either become part of the indigenous people or set up their own communities. These maroons caused many problems for plantations, especially in Haiti and surrounding areas. They would pillage and destroy crops and would start slave rebellions. Most of these communities disappeared over time. Jamaica was a hot spot where Great Britain gave the maroons 2500 acres in exchange that they would leave them alone.